Manual Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Review, Vol. 3 No. 1 (June 2007)

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Qian, Xuewen.

Challenge of Globalization to Agriculture in the Asian and Pacific Region

China is rich in coal, but insufficient in petroleum and gas. The energy shortage is not a general shortage but a structural imbalance. China and the Middle East oil-producing countries have maintained friendly and cooperative relations: mutual political, economic complementarities and cultural fusion, which create a favorable environment for cooperation for extracting and removing the Middle East oil. Rakhmat, Muhammad Zulfikar.

Historically, promoting dialogue between people of different nations has been a way to build bridges of understanding between countries.

Smith samantha 1998 the multi fibre arrangement a

For example, since , the U. Fulbright Exchange has served to strengthen relations between the United States and other countries.


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Similarly, as the partnership between China and the UAE has grown significantly in recent years, both governments have come to recognize the importance of overcoming linguistic-cultural barriers. Yet the two countries have ties that go well beyond oil cooperation.

REN, Mu. June To answer these questions, this article is structured as follows. Rubin, Barry. Each of them has a number of aspects and implications, and all of them have evolved over time…. Russell, Richard. China has an expanding body of strategic interests in the greater Middle East region. This is manifested in its security relationships with Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Pakistan, which entail WMD and ballistic missile cooperation.

Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Pakistan are pivotal states in the region. They are increasingly likely to view China in coming years as an alternate source of security and as a counterbalance to American power.


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  • Over the past decade, Chinese diplomacy has produced an impressive array of bilateral and multilateral arrangements for curbing WMD and ballistic missile proliferation. Scobell, Andrew and Alireza Nader. China is becoming increasingly active in the Middle East, just as some regional states perceive a declining U.

    This study examines China's interests in the region and assesses China's economic, political, and security activities in the Middle East to determine whether China has a strategy toward the region and what such a strategy means for the United States. The study concludes that China has adopted a "wary dragon" strategy toward the Middle East, whereby China is reluctant to commit substantial diplomatic or military resources to protect its growing energy and other economic interests. China does not pose a threat to U. The study recommends that the United States adopt a two-pronged strategy where China and the Middle East are concerned.

    First, the United States should encourage China, along with other Asian powers, to become more involved in efforts to improve Middle East stability. Scott, Emma. This essay examines China-Iran trade relations, as well as Chinese investments in Iran. I in Iran is slowing in spite of absolute increases.

    This commentary shows that China—Arab relations are beginning a process of institutionalisation built on energy, infrastructure, and trade deals as well as on agreements in the field of culture. July 17, Since , a spur in high-level diplomatic exchanges led to the signing of numerous agreements, including a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership agreement. Promises of Chinese foreign direct investment FDI into largescale transport and energy infrastructure projects have been cited.

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    With the trade balance heavily tipped in favour of China, this policy brief identifies ways for Egypt to more broadly benefit from the relationship. Shichor, Yitzhak. May 29, October 10, In order to ensure reliable access for Chinese commercial shipping from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, the Chinese government has adopted a dual-track approach, simultaneously expanding its interests in the Suez Canal corridor while also pursuing a land-based route through Israel August The Chinese government has been involved in shaping Egypt's special economic zones projects from the very beginning.

    The findings also show that the aims of Go Global policy are being realized through the Suez zone. The zone has potential; however, there exist a number of pitfalls of which China should be weary including over-expenditure and Egypt's domestic politics.

    Shai, Aron. Research Paper No. The first part of this study reviews the historical background of Sino-Israeli relations. The second analyzes China-Israel bilateral relations since January , when full diplomatic relations between the two countries were established. The third part examines some of the international perspectives that involve both China and Israel. The fourth part ventures a look into the prospects of future Sino-Israeli relations.

    It also attempts to substantiate how Israel should reexamine its China policy more consistently and regularly, in view of changes occurring in the international arena. Shariatinia, Mohsen and Hamidreza Azizi. Iran served as a bridge in the ancient Silk Road, connecting the East and the West. It also has great potential to play an important role in the new Silk Road. The present study analyzes the factors affecting Iran—China cooperation in the context of the Belt and Road Initiative at the strategic and operational levels.

    source url This article shows that, at the strategic level, Iran defines this project as an opportunity to improve its status in the world economy, expanding its room to manoeuvre in the international arena and developing its ties with China, a rising great power. At the operational level, the opportunities and challenges for Iran—China cooperation could be summarized as pertaining to five realms within the Silk Road Economic Belt Initiative: policy coordination, facilitation of connectivity, unimpeded trade, financial integration and people-to-people bonds.

    The present study asserts that the main opportunity for cooperation between the two countries lies in facilitating connectivity and that the key challenge is financial integration. Shen, Dingli. The Iranian nuclear case presents a challenge to China's leaders and an opportunity to demonstrate their ability to balance domestic interests with responsibilities as a growing global power. What considerations shape Beijing's decisions, and what will it do next?


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    • For years, the Chinese have used a variety of tactics to postpone resolution of the Iran nuclear ambitions and suffocate international attempts to force Tehran to abandon its nuclear program. Now, Beijing perhaps realizes that blocking sanctions could entail a war against Iran, an option that—from its own standpoint and that of the international community including Iran —is far worse On January 11, Ehud Olmert ended his three-day official visit to China.

      His visit indicated that Beijing may now be willing to forgive though probably not to forget and turn to a new page in Sino-Israeli relations following over six years of a relative chill This is the main question addressed by this article and it will be explored at several levels: strategic, diplomatic, military and economic China no doubt prefers good relations with Iran, the avoidance of sanctions, and the avoidance of force against Iran.

      But when push comes to shove, it is more important for Beijing to avoid worsening Sino-American relations. Based on an already existing infrastructure, their quick progress is an outcome of an unofficial relationship that has been have been painstakingly promoted long before By the late s, the Middle East had become a solid base of operations for China's foreign policy in political, economic, and military terms. This was made possible following Iraq's violent annexation of Kuwait.

      China used the Persian Gulf crisis to restore its position as a great power whose cooperation is essential for settling outstanding regional problems all over the world. Consequently, China's strained relations with the West in general and the United States in particular have been gradually improving. At the same time, by insisting on a peaceful solution to the crisis, China has managed to maintain its image as the true representative of the Third World, having easy access to all parties concerned, friends and foes alike.

      China's behavior in the Gulf crisis is already well documented. This article proposed to place this behavior within a historical context, underscoring the lingering influence of Maoism on China's response to international affairs It is only since the early s that China's post-Mao leaders began to reconsider their U. By late , a new Chinese attitude emerged that not only encouraged the U.

      This has been amply demonstrated during the recent Gulf crisis In China's view the assassination provided fresh opportunities for Moscow, underlined Washington's 'short-sightedness' and exposed the shortcomings of the Camp David peace agreements. Under these circumstances the Chinese apparently decided to urge a quick settlement of local conflicts as a precondition to repelling the Soviets The Egyptian-Israeli peace process has put China in an awkward position: on the one hand the process conforms to fundamental Chinese strategic interests in the area, as well as to long-held Chinese views about a possible settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict; on the other hand it is obvious that Egypt is almost completely isolated and, more important, opposed by most of the other Arab countries and particularly by the Palestinians whom the Chinese have always regarded as the key to any settlement Singh, Michael.

      December The events of the past several years have presented both challenges and opportunities to China, giving rise to the sort of policy dilemmas that Beijing has long sought to evade.