Affecting members of different social groups almost evenly, these grievances are often seen as a potential point of convergence from which a more sustained even political challenge to China's CCP-led regime could emerge. However, no such sustained environmental movement has resulted from a coalescing of individual protests.
Nevertheless, a spread of such environment-related contention is clearly in evidence. This begs the question of what factors enable the diffusion of contention while simultaneously constraining its development into a larger, more solidified social movement. We address this question by studying contention against municipal solid waste incinerators MSWI in urban, peri-urban and rural China. Our in-depth case studies show that brokers, such as national-level experts, lawyers or non-governmental organizations, play crucial and increasingly important roles in the diffusion of resistance against both operating and planned MSWI plants.
On their own, however, these actors are powerless to maintain contention.
Instead, they rely on building alliances with local actors that have been directly affected by the projects. These alliances are by no means easy to initiate or sustain, since interests often overlap but are far from identical. Overall, activism against MSWIs in China is no longer fragmented, but has also not yet developed into a movement. Instead, it has evolved into a pattern of 'networked contention. Maria Bondes.
Needs, wants and values in China: Reducing physical wants for sustainable consumption. Authors: Boqiang Yan, Joachim H. Abstract: China is simultaneously the world's biggest polluter, largest victim of pollution, and most ferocious fighter against pollution. So the question is: How can pollution be reduced to So the question is: How can pollution be reduced to pave the way for the ecological civilisation of the future moderately affluent Chinese society?
For China to play a leading role in escaping the global environmental crisis, for the benefit of its own population and the rest of the world, technological improvements and the greening of the economy, important as they are, will not suffice. More is needed in terms of limiting resource consumption, namely a reorientation from economic growth towards sustainable consumption and sufficiency.
Improving efficiencies on all levels by technological and social innovations is a condition for this, as is a change of consumer aspirations from more to better, towards sufficiency and a good life. Chinese philosophical traditions and values offer anchoring points for such a green enlightenment.
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Footprints of India and China's economies. In terms of per capita income, China and India are still in the category of developing economies, but in view of their increasing share in the global GDP, they are now major economic powers. China replaced the USA as the world's biggest China replaced the USA as the world's biggest manufacturer in and overtook it as the top economy in in terms of its GDP at purchasing power parity.
India overtook Japan in as the third largest economy in the world. China and India together, with 2. Given this, even if their per capita incomes are lower than the advanced economies, the size of their GDPs means a massive environmental footprint of their economies nationally as well as globally. China and India can no longer hide their national and global environmental responsibilities under the pretext which was perhaps partially valid a few decades ago: that they needed to develop and, therefore, protecting planet Earth from the harmful consequences of global climate change was their lesser concern.
Introduction: Air Pollution in China. Ecological Civilization is, we argue, a top- down imaginary of The article compares how residents in a small cluster of villages in Zhejiang province dealt with different sources of air pollution over a span of ten years: how, when and why they chose to negotiate with local officials and industrial managers to prevent or reduce air pollution, and what the outcome was.
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We found that in addition to a consciousness of the right to protest, villagers had come to regard the ability to evoke science in negotiations with officials and industrial managers as crucial for success. Ecological Civilization is, we argue, a top-down imaginary of Ecological Civilization is, we argue, a top-down imaginary of China's future that opens up space for environmental agency while setting authoritative standards for how to frame protests in a logic of science and social stability.
We suggest that the forms of environmental activism we observed were in effect " containable protests " that befit the state-initiated national imaginary of an ecologically civilized world. Liu Zhaohui. Xinhong Wang. This book presents a new perspective on attempts by the contemporary Chinese government to transform the diverse conditions found in countless rural villages into what the state's social welfare program deems 'socialist new villages' This book presents a new perspective on attempts by the contemporary Chinese government to transform the diverse conditions found in countless rural villages into what the state's social welfare program deems 'socialist new villages'.
The Chinese government deploys myriad ways of censoring the internet. China requires foreign correspondents to obtain permission before reporting in the country and has used this as an administrative roadblock to prevent journalists from reporting on potentially sensitive topics like corruption and, increasingly, economic and financial developments. Under Xi, the ability of foreign journalists and international news outlets to travel and access to sources have shrunk.
The treatment of foreign reporters has become a diplomatic issue. In more recent years, China has made it exceedingly difficult for foreign technology firms to compete within the country. The websites of U. State Department. The move triggered an outcry from European and U. Despite the systematic control of news, the Chinese public has found numerous ways to circumvent censors.
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Microblogging sites like Weibo have also become primary spaces for Chinese netizens to voice opinion or discuss taboo subjects. China had roughly million internet users in Rather, the fight for free expression fits into a larger context of burgeoning citizen attention to other, more pertinent social campaigns like environmental degradation, social inequality, and corruption—issues for which they use the internet and media as a means of disseminating information, says Ng. Technology and Innovation.
McRaven and Anya Schmemann September 18, By the same token, former U. Vice President Al Gore, a journalist before he became a politician, has served as an environmental policymaker, activist, and media maker, winning a share of the Nobel Peace Prize for his activism and sharing an Academy Award for his documentary An Inconvenient Truth. Activist organizations such as Global celebrities have become para-journalists to help publicize the issue, and news outlets such as The Guardian have launched advocacy campaigns that blend journalism and activism.
Professional science journalists may also fulfill their roles as communicators in a variety of creative and flexible ways, from explaining patterns to a lay audience to providing context to inviting public participation Secko et al. The rise of digital and mobile storytelling tools has put greater power and possibilities in the hands of reporters and editors.
In the environmental journalism and climate change reporting world, it has often proven difficult to grapple with the challenge of condensing sometimes-conflicting scientific information, which is often marked by uncertainty and probabilistic models, while also accurately reflecting the frequently wide range of public policy arguments.
Indeed, studies have shown how an equivalency was drawn in journalistic stories between consensus science and what is variously called climate skepticism, doubt, denialism or other related terms Boykoff et al. While there is evidence that this pattern receded among mainstream news outlets to some extent Boykoff, , news media continue to face criticisms and challenges, particularly as a result of political fragmentation and polarization Roberts, Some researchers and analysts have suggested that reporters in the United States struggle with clarity of language in the face of increasing scientific certainty Mooney, The quality and accuracy of reporting on major new scientific studies can vary widely Wihbey, Climate change coverage has been spotty and inconsistent throughout much of the developing world Shanahan, As critics point out, not a single question about climate change was asked of the U.
Some analysts continue to argue that journalists are not articulating the concept of risk fully or sufficiently, and more training is required to help reporters and editors better convey probabilities and quantitative information Painter, It should be noted that the roots of problems inherent to news media reporting may have their origins well prior to when journalists begin publishing professionally. Journalistic training at the post-secondary level has long faced criticism that it focuses too much on tradecraft and does not sufficiently prepare would-be media members to grapple with complex information and perform deeper analytical tasks.
There continue to be calls to improve curricula to give journalists more sophisticated skills Folkerts et al. In the United States, about half of all journalists majored in communications and journalism in college Willnat et al. Other cultural, economic, and technological trends have continued to complicate this relationship between fundamental science and media dissemination, not least the decline of traditional media, the fragmentation of mass media audiences, and the increasingly personalized nature of news consumption Bennett et al.
This has meant that even as news media attention has spiked around major reports and global conferences of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC , the capacity of traditional media to reach broad audiences about the consensus findings has been reduced. The rise of social media platforms for the distribution of news is also changing the traditional dynamics of the news industry, as for the first time news organization do not necessarily control the means of distribution Bell, Further, even as reporters and editors at mainstream news outlets have improved reporting and devoted more coverage to the consensus science and the dangers for humanity, the rise of partisan news sources and polarization in the United States has meant that public opinion remains volatile Mayer, As climate science has burgeoned as a field over the past three or more decades, the traditional sources of mainstream, general-audience journalism dedicated to scientific issues have contracted.
For example, in there were 95 American newspapers that had weekly science sections, but by only 24 did, and many had begun to focus more on issues of human health and not the physical sciences. Many of the journalists who covered specialized science beats lost their jobs, often leaving general assignment reporters to cover issues such as climate change Russell, Further, the overall number of editorial workers at U.
In the United Kingdom, there have been similar patterns and corresponding concerns about the declining quality of science news Murcott et al. Meanwhile, news media in the developing world, where many of the impacts of human-induced climate change may be most acute, leading to drought, heatwaves, and sea-level rise, have not been equipped to deal with the extent of the challenge, a problem that has long been identified Boykoff et al. Some African media watchers continue to report that it remains difficult to generate serious public attention to the problem Tshikalanke, As will be discussed later in this article, capacity-building efforts such as those through UNESCO; International Institute for Environment and Development; and Internews, a global nonprofit organization dedicated to building media capacity, and its Earth Journalism Network have attempted to remedy this imbalance, but a lack of media resources and capacity stands a long-term problem Fahn, However, it remains the case that when global or national interest reaches a threshold level, news organizations are willing to send correspondents in droves and devote significant attention to the issue.
Some 6, journalists applied for credentials at the United Nations climate change talks in Paris, with an estimated 3, in attendance Howard, There has been a community focus on developing a better understanding of how audiences find, use, and interpret news about climate change and what this means for storytelling, reporting, and delivery and promotion of news. For example, collaborations such as Climate Communication have been launched to support scientists in their dealings with media.
Efforts at Stanford University, Oxford University, MIT, Harvard University, and the University of Rhode Island continue to sponsor programming and fellowship programs that help in part to bolster journalism in this area. Meanwhile, powerful, widely read sites and blogs such as Dot Earth, hosted by the New York Times , Climate Central, Real Climate, The Conversation, Skeptical Science, and Climate Progress and Grist—which, as with many websites about climate change, blend both advocacy and analysis—have fostered professional dialogue and greater awareness of science and relevant reporting and communications issues.
Using funds from national donor agencies, the United Nations has meanwhile sponsored a variety of media trainings for journalists across developing nations, with UNESCO conducting workshops and producing materials that aim to assist journalists living in places where environmental reporting is still evolving as a tradition, such as in many African nations Shanahan et al.
Media Censorship in China | Council on Foreign Relations
Further, the Climate Change Media Partnership has facilitated trainings for journalists from throughout the Global South. In many countries where news media have not traditionally focused on climate change, non-governmental organizations NGOs are often the main conduit for communications around global warming issues. For example, the Centre for Science and Environment, a public interest advocacy and research group based in India, has become an influential communications outlet and publishes a widely read magazine.
As mentioned, journalists and scientists have had ongoing conversations as part of the regular publication and reporting processes, and through professional conferences and events bringing the two communities together. In more recent years, debate within science-journalism circles has focused on the degree to which specific extreme weather events might be attributable to human-induced global warming Brainard, ; McKibben, Efforts to inform and educate the news media to better communicate with broad general audiences on complex and often controversial public policy issues of course pre-date any such efforts aimed specifically at climate change.
go site Among the entities early in conducting such workshops from a reporters-helping-reporters perspective was the Environmental Health Center, EHC, a division of the nonprofit National Safety Council, an organization that long had focused on traditional safety and workplace issues, and only recently involved in pollution and environmental health issues. The group, along with roughly a dozen other cofounders, played a key role in the early days in the establishment of the Society of Environmental Journalists SEJ.
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A Pasadena, California, based organization, the Foundation for American Communications, FACS, headed by a former top assistant to Arizona Republican senator and unsuccessful presidential candidate Barry Goldwater, had cut its teeth on journalism continuing education programs with a focus on economics reporting, and what many reporters came to see as having a distinct free-market emphasis. Continuing education programs focusing on climate change science and aimed at journalists began to take hold in the late s and throughout the s.